Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Hari ini..........30 November 2011


Dan kini, telah tiba hari perjuangan untuk semua bekas anak muridku sesi 2010/2011, bagi calon SPM 2011, subjek Biologi, semoga kalian semua dapat melakukan yang terbaik untuk hari ini....


Doa dikirim di angin lalu, agar diberikan Allah kekuatan, kekhusyukkan dan semoga dikurniakan Allah dengan segala idea bernas lagi tepat untuk menduduki kertas Biologi 1, Biologi 2 dan Biologi 3. Semoga tahun ini akan dapat melakar sekali lagi sejarah untuk meningkatkan pencapaian dalam peratus pencapaian kecemerlangan serta peningkatan kualiti pencapaian, insya Allah...

Doa dan restu mengiringi......
Doa dan restu semua insan yang mengenali mengiringi kalian semua....insya Allah...

Wehdah! Wehdah! Islamiyyah...


Thursday, November 24, 2011

Blood Clotting Mechanism

What are blood clots? (klik to get the link)

Blood is a liquid that flows within blood vessels. It is constantly in motion as the heart pumps blood through arteries to the different organs and cells of the body. The blood is returned back to the heart by the veins. Veins are squeezed when muscles in the body contract and push the blood back to the heart.

Blood clotting is an important mechanism to help the body repair injured blood vessels. Blood consists of:
  • red blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide (the waste product of metabolism),
  • white blood cells that fight infection,
  • platelets that are part of the clotting process of the body, and
  • blood plasma, which contains fluid, chemicals and proteins that are important for bodily functions.
Complex mechanisms exist in the bloodstream to form clots where they are needed. If the lining of the blood vessels becomes damaged, platelets are recruited to the injured area to form an initial plug. These activated platelets release chemicals that start the clotting cascade, using a series of clotting factors produced by the body. Ultimately, fibrin is formed, the protein that crosslinks with itself to form a mesh that makes up the final blood clot.
The medical term for a blood clot is a thrombus (plural= thrombi). When a thrombus is formed as part of a normal repair process of the body, there is little consequence. Unfortunately, there are times when a thrombus (blood clot) will form when it is not needed, and this can have potentially significant consequences.

What does a blood clot look like?

Picture of a how blood clot is formed
Picture of how red blood cells and platelets form a blood clot

What causes blood clots?

Blood clots form when there is damage to the lining of a blood vessel, either an artery or a vein. The damage may be obvious, such as a laceration, or may occur on the microscopic level. As well, blood will begin to clot if it stops moving and becomes stagnant.

Injured or cut
Formation of fibrin mesh
The blood start to clot
Fibrin network trap the erythrocyte
Venous thrombosis or blood clots in a vein occur when a person becomes immobilized and muscles are not contracting to push blood back to the heart. This stagnant blood begins to form small clots along the walls of the vein. This initial clot can gradually grow to partially or completely occlude or block the vein and prevent blood from returning to the heart. An analogy to this process is a slow moving river. Over time, weeds and algae start to accumulate along the banks of the river where the water flows more slowly. Gradually, as the weeds start to grow, they begin to invade the center of the river because they can withstand the pressure of the oncoming water flow.
Arterial thrombi (blood clots in an artery) occur by a different mechanism. For those with atherosclerotic disease, plaque deposits form along the lining of the artery and grow to cause narrowing of the vessel. This is the disease process that may cause heart attack, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. If a plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form at the site of that rupture and can completely or partially occlude the blood flow at that point.
Blood clots in the heart. In atrial fibrillation, the atrium or upper chamber of the heart does not beat in an organized manner. Instead, it jiggles, and blood tends to become stagnant along the walls of the atrium. Over time, this may cause small blood clots to form. Clots can also form in the ventricle after a heart attack when part of the heart muscle is injured and unable to contract normally. Since the damaged area doesn't contract with the rest of the heart, blood can start to pool or stagnate, leading to clot formation.
Blood leaking out of a blood vessel.  Blood clots can form when blood leaks out of a blood vessel. This is very beneficial when a person gets a cut or scrape wound, because the clot helps stop further bleeding at the wound site. The clotting mechanism works well following trauma as well. Broken bones, sprains and strains, and nosebleeds all result in bleeding that is controlled by the body's clotting mechanism.
Blood clots causing other medical problems. Sometimes, normal blood clotting can cause medical problems because of its location. For example, if bleeding occurs in the urine from any of a variety of reasons (such as infection, trauma, or tumor) clots may form and prevent the bladder from emptying, causing urinary retention. Clot formation in the uterus may cause pain when the clots are passed through the cervix and can lead to vaginal bleeding, either as part of menstruation or as abnormal vaginal bleeding (menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea).

Dear students, if you are asked, what are the 2 diseases that related to the blood clotting problem, the answer is :
1) Haemophillia
2) Thrombosis

Haemophillia as one of the sex-linked disease
Chances to get haemophillia

Cardiac ventricle from patient who suffered an acute fatal myocardial infarction. Cross-sectional view of coronary artery reveals dark red thrombi (circles).


Saturday, November 5, 2011

Tips Akhir dan Aruhan Semangat.

 Tentunya anak-anak didik Tingkatan 5 sekarang sedang berhempas pulas mengulangkaji pelajaran, memandangkan hanya tinggal seminggu sahaja lagi peperiksaan SPM kalian. Diharapkan agar segala persediaan yang dibuat itu, tidak dilupai dengan bajaan lain seperti doa dan munajat kepadaNya, hubungan kemasyarakatan(terutama dengan ahli keluarga) and don't skip your meals. Tak lupa juga, dinasihatkan kalian semua dapat cukup rehat dan cukup tidur agar tidak terlalu kepenatan nanti. Jika ada yang mengambil supplement tambahan, teruskan mengambilnya...

Semoga segala usaha yang dibuat akan dikurniakan ketenangan dan keberkatan sepanjang tempoh peperiksaan itu nanti. Jangan dilupa, bahawa doa dan munajat itu biarlah berpanjangan dan berterusan walaupun telah tamat tempoh peperiksaan itu nanti... 

Semoga Berjaya dengan CEMERLANG!

Kenangan ini sebagai bukti, KALIAN BOLEH!

All about the heart!
...and prove it, checking the blood pressure(Science & Maths week 2011)
Chapter 5 Essay : Cell Division
 


Cheek cells - the part that we miss! =(
- Fish respiratory organs -
- The blood centrifugation -
The baby development - Chapter 4; Form 5
 ....to be continued...
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